AEO Education

AEO Blue-V41   Angel's Eyes Ophthalmics is the innovator of Blue-V41 technology.   Blue-V41 technology blocks harmful blue light and balances the rest of the color spectrum to perfection.  Blue-V41 lenses not only reflect, but, disperse glare away from the front and back side of the lens.  Giving each patient the clearest, most soothing, balanced vision on the market today.  AEO Blue-V41 lenses protect the health of your eye from cataracts, cancer, macular degeneration, spasming, fatigue, anxiety, strain, headaches and light sensitivity   Heaven on Earth, so you won't feel like hell...Angel's Eyes!  

AEO Solarized   Angel's Eyes Ophthalmics' exclusive solarized technology disperses light on all planes, without any annoying visual disturbances.  All AEO lenses are solarized, whether they are clear or sunglasses.  All AEO lenses protect your eyes from harmful UV, Blue and HEV light.  Say goodbye to annoying polarization and hello to the new world of AEO solarization.  Angel's Eyes are out of this world!      

AEO Heaven   Angel's Eyes Ophthalmics' "Heaven" technology, scientifically balances the visual light spectrum that sends signals to the brain's receptors and visual cortex.  Heaven reduces the internal spasming of the eye.  Perfect for headaches, migraines and stress caused by LED screens and displays.  Angel's Eyes Heaven lenses diffuse, diagnose and subtract light rays to give the eyes receptors perfect balance, before, being processed by the brains visual cortex. Resulting in soothe, calm light to the optic nerve that is contoured, contrasted and color balanced.  Truly indescribable vision until you try it...mind blowing!  Angel's Eyes, "Heaven" on Earth!    

AEO Blocks HEV Light   HEV (high energy visible) light runs in the visible spectrum from 400-450 nanometers.  HEV light contributes to biological effects such as insomnia, bipolar disorder, ADHD and delayed sleep phase disorder.  Currently, a 2019 report by France's Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES) supports the 2010 result on the adverse effect of blue LED light (400-450 nm spike) on the eye, which can lead to impaired vision. It highlights short-term effects on the retina linked to intense exposure to blue LED light, and long-term effects linked to the onset of age-related macular degeneration.  You only have one set of eyes...your eyes deserve guardian Angel's Eyes! 

AEO Ice Mirrors   Angel's Ice mirror coatings cool down the sun's glare with icing on the lens,lol.  Add an Angel's Eyes flash or solid mirror coating for those unbearable sunlight conditions.  A flash of Ice will allow the true color of the lens to show through the mirror.  A solid Ice will be a true solid mirror color... Angel' Ice flash and solid mirrors are available in Blue, Silver, Gold or Purple

The Eye needs light...

 

The Retina receives light...

The retina is the light sensitive tissue which lines the inside of the eye.  Light gets focused and captured by the retina.  The retina then sends electronic impulses through the optic nerve which then stimulates certain regions of the brain giving us “vision.” 

How the Eyes Work...

All the different parts of your eyes work together to help you see.

First, light passes through the cornea (the clear front layer of the eye). The cornea is shaped like a dome and bends light to help the eye focus.

Some of this light enters the eye through an opening called the pupil (PYOO-pul). The iris (the colored part of the eye) controls how much light the pupil lets in.

Next, light passes through the lens (a clear inner part of the eye). The lens works together with the cornea to focus light correctly on the retina.

When light hits the retina (a light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye), special cells called photoreceptors turn the light into electrical signals.

These electrical signals travel from the retina through the optic nerve to the brain. Then the brain turns the signals into the images you see.

Your eyes also need tears to work correctly.

Refraction to a pinpoint

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Abbe value is everything...

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Chromatic Aberration

                                                          Basic Optical Lens Science

Refractive Index

Eyeglass lenses are often categorized by their refractive index (also called index of refraction).

The refractive index of any substance is the speed of light in that substance compared to the speed of light in a vacuum expressed as a ratio.  Light travels fastest in a vacuum and slower through different materials.

Refractive Index = speed of light in a vacuum / speed of light in the comparative material

The refractive index of a basic plastic lens (CR-39) is 1.498 meaning that light travels 1.498 times faster in a vacuum than it does through the plastic lens.

The higher the index of refraction the thinner a lens can be to get the same refraction effect.  Optical lenses are now classified into the following categories:

  • Normal Index: 1.48-1.54

  • Mid Index: 1.54-1.64

  • High Index: 1.64-1.74

  • Ultra High Index: 1.74 and above

Abbe Value

Abbe value is a measure of the lens material’s dispersion of light.  A lens with a low Abbe value causes a higher dispersion and leads to unwanted chromatic aberration.  Chromatic aberration is a distortion of the image due to the inability of the lens to focus all colors onto the same focal point.  This leads to the perception of undesirable color fringes when viewing objects for many people.

High index lenses offer a thinner lens but usually have lower abbe values.  The Abbe value determines to a large part the optical integrity of the lens. The higher the abbe value the better the optical clarity and less distortion.   It is a delicate balance to find a lens that not only satisfies in terms of aesthetics and weight, but also features acceptable optical clarity.

In the United States, most high index lenses are made from the various plastic materials.  Some other countries still use a lot of glass material for high index lenses.  Glass is available in very high indices such as 1.8 and 1.9 but because of its density it is still very heavy.  Glass lenses also take longer for optical labs to fabricate.  High index plastic lenses can be used in desired rimless and 3 piece mount frames.


 

Options of Lens Materials for Eyeglasses

Normal Index Lenses

Standard Plastic CR-39 Lenses

These are conventional plastic material lenses with a refractive index of 1.498 that have been widely used since their introduction in 1947.  One of the biggest advantages of this lens is its affordability.  It also provides good optical clarity and is easy to tint.  CR-39 lenses have a high Abbe value of 59.3 making them the lenses with the least distortion from dispersion/chromatic aberration.


 

Mid Index Lenses

Polycarbonate Lenses

A disadvantage of polycarbonate is that it is naturally a soft material causing it to scratch much easier.  However, unlike CR-39 basic plastic lenses, a scratch resistant coating is almost always standard as it is applied when the lenses are made.  With higher refractive indexes, there are often more chromatic aberrations, meaning visual disturbances of light, that can be interpreted as blur by some.  Chromatic aberrations are higher in polycarbonate lenses.  The abbe value of polycarbonate is 30, the lowest of all lens materials making it the worst lens for optical clarity and integrity.  Plenty of people cannot adapt to a polycarbonate lens.  For those reasons Trivex is the better choice in a mid-index lens.    

 

Trivex Lenses

Trivex is a relatively new optical lens material.  It has the ultraviolet blocking properties (380 nanometers and less) and shatter resistant properties of polycarbonate. However, Trivex lenses have a much higher abbe value (43-45) vs. polycarbonate (abbe value 30) making it much better in optical clarity with fewer chromatic aberrations.  


 

High Index & Ultra-High Index Plastic Lenses

An even higher index lens should be considered to achieve the thinnest lenses possible.  This means the index of refraction would need to be greater than that of polycarbonate and Trivex (>1.60).  High index lenses are classified by numbers that represent their refractive index and range from 1.64 to 1.74.  High index lenses can be up to 50% thinner than regular glass or plastic lenses, and they’re usually much lighter, too.  Although these lenses are generally recommended for people with high optical prescriptions, high index lenses can benefit anyone who would like a thinner lens profile.  The higher the index, the thinner the lens will be relative to basic plastic.  One of the biggest disadvantages of high index materials is the higher cost compared to other materials including polycarbonate and Trivex.  High index plastics also have a lower abbe value (32-42) and therefore have some problems with chromatic aberrations.  Because of the way that light interacts with high index lenses (chromatic aberrations), it's highly recommended that an anti-reflective (AR) coating also be applied to the lens to help with reflected light. 

Because of the density of the high index plastic material it isn’t usually the lightest material even though it is thinner.  Trivex is usually the lightest weight lens material.

High index plastics do offer good ultraviolet inhibition (below 380-400 nanometers) properties as well as shatter resistance.

A lens with a higher index of refraction tends to reflect light more than standard CR-39 plastic or glass lenses.  The extra reflections are usually quite bothersome for the wearer especially at night and while using a computer monitor.  The glare from the lenses is also cosmetically unappealing.  Because of this most high index lenses come with an anti-reflective coating as a standard option. 


 

Glass Lenses

 Glass lenses provide excellent optics, the most scratch resistant lens material and blocks UV light.  However, glass lenses are heavy, thick and dangerous if broken  and cannot be used in certain frame styles.  


 

 

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Visual Cortex

The visual cortex is located in the occipital lobe of the brain and is primarily responsible for interpreting and processing visual information received from the eyes. The amount of visual information received and processed by the visual cortex is truly massive. Nearly half of the brain is in some way dedicated to vision—either direct communication pathways from the retina of the eyes to the occipital lobe, or to indirect visual processing and visual skills. The visual cortex is divided into six critical areas depending on the structure and function of the area. These are often referred to as V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, and the inferotemporal cortex. The primary visual cortex (V1) is the first stop for visual information in the occipital lobe.

Primary Visual Cortex (V1, striate cortex, Brodmann area 17)

The brain is filled with depressions or grooves (sulci) and elevations (gyri). These help increase the overall surface area of the brain. The primary visual cortex is located in and around the calcarine fissure, which is a characteristic landmark sulcus in the occipital lobe.

Prior to reaching V1, visual information is separated into the right and left visual field shortly after the nerve cells making up the optic nerve leave the eye. This separation occurs in the optic chiasm, and allows visual information from the right and left eye to combine together. The farther back in the brain the visual pathway travels, the closer corresponding points between the right and left become associated. By the time the information is received by V1, the corresponding points in vision are perfectly meshed. A secondary consequence of this cross over at the optic chiasm is that the right side of the visual cortex processes vision from the left visual field, and the left side of the visual cortex processes vision from the right visual field.

V1 can be thought of as a sorting area. Cells from the entire visual field are represented, but the majority of V1 is dedicated to cells associated with the foveal (central) vision. The fovea is the small anatomical area of the retina responsible for fine-detail vision. The main function is to process all the incoming visual information and pass the correct information to the more specialized areas of the cortex. The more specialized areas are termed the extrastriate cortex, and include visual areas V2, V3, V4, V5, and the inferotemporal cortex.

Visual processing can broadly be separated into two pathways. These are the "what" and "where" components of visual processing, and is often referred to as the two-stream model. The occipitotemporal (ventral) processing stream is critical for visual recognition of objects (“what” something in vision is). Input primarily is received from parvocellular cells in the lateral genicular nucleus of the thalamus. These are smaller cells dedicated to fine-tuned spatial resolution (think color and clarity).

The occipitoparietal (dorsal) processing stream is critical for visually-guided action and localization of objects in space (“where” something in vision is). This pathway primarily receives input from the magnocellular cells in the lateral genicular nucleus of the thalamus. These cells are larger and are dedicated to temporal resolution (think low detail and movement).

Although the flow of visual information appears to be in different areas of the brain, it is paramount to understand that visual processing is a cooperative task. These systems work together to benefit the body as a whole. The visual system contains a series of reciprocal pathways or feedback loops to help with information gathering and processing.

Visual Area Two (V2, secondary visual cortex, or prestriate cortex)

V2 receives information directly from V1 and passes information to V3, V4, and V5. There is also a feedback loop to send signals back to V1.

Visual Area Three (V3)

V3 communicated directly with the respective dorsal and ventral subsystems of V2. Dorsal V3 seems to play a role in processing motion, while ventral V3 may play a role in color sensitivity. V3 as a whole is less well-defined compared to other areas of the visual cortex.

Visual Area Four (V4, extrastriate cortex)

V4 receives information from V2 and is part of the ventral processing stream. Cells in V4 are very responsive to color.

Visual Area Five (V5, middle temporal cortex)

V5 is part of the dorsal processing pathway and contains cells highly sensitive to motion.

Inferotemporal Cortex

The inferotemporal cortex is located along the lower (inferior) portion of the temporal lobe. This area of the brain is part of the ventral processing stream and seems to respond best so simple shapes (circle, square, etc.).

Blue Light Myths

Angel's Eyes Ophthalmics did extensive research and testing on competing blue light and migraine lenses.  AEO found that  big box retailers are selling advertised blue light blocking and migraine lenses that have little, to no blue light protection at all.  Big box retailers are capitalizing on blue light/migraine promotion at the consumers expense and safety.  The majority of these lenses are made from low cost, cheap polycarbonate, the worst material for your vision.  These name brand company's claim polycarbonate to be the industry standard , don't believe it.  Polycarbonate is the industries lowest standard.  Polycarbonate is cheap to manufacture and through false advertising claims, the consumer is being forced to believe that polycarbonate is the industry standard.  These unethical practices have resulted in false data and given blue light/migraine protection a negative experience to the consumer.  Don't waste your time and money on cheap blue light and migraine glasses, they are not regulated.  Your eyes deserve the best..Angel's Eyes Ophthalmics.  Our mission at AEO is to provide our patients with the highest quality lens technology and protection, especially when it comes to blue light, migraine and sunglasses.  Don't compromise...Angel's Eyes!    

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This picture is a rare sight of the birefringence in a surfaced polycarbonate lens. Stress in the lens shifts the isotropic material to anisotropic,[1] leading to the birefringence which is an optical property of the material. This depends upon both light polarization and propagation,[2] seen in anisotropic materials such as tightly fitted and insufficiently-cooled ophthalmic lenses (injection molding). It is visualized through a polariscope, appears as a field of colorful-fringes [Figure 1]. Polycarbonate lenses are made by injection molding have low optical quality and can cause difficulty in adaptation to the wearer. Therefore, it is vital to check stress marks before dispensing.  The dispersion of three polymers commonly used in photoelasticity studies has been measured at several IR and visible wavelengths and the results have been correlated with transmittance spectra.  The change of stress-optic coefficient in the visible region ranges from 6% for CR-39, 16% for P-6 and 17% for polycarbonate. (Almost 3x that of CR-39)

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Angel's Eyes Ophthalmics
Eagan, Minnesota
(651) 454-7625

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